1)Sign has become a scientific hot button. Only in the past 20 years have specialists in language study realized that signed languages are unique—a speech of the hand. They offer a new way to probe how the brain generates and understands language, and throw new light on an old scientific controversy: whether language, complete with grammar, is something that we are born With, or whether it is a learned behavior. The current interest in sign language has roots in the pioneering work of one rebel teacher at GallaudetUniversityin Washington, D. C., the world’s only liberal arts university for deaf people.
When Bill Stokoe went to Gallaudet to teach English, the school enrolled him in a course in signing. But Stokoe noticed something odd: among themselves, students signed differently from his classroom teacher.
Stokoe had been taught a sort of gestural code, each movement of the hands representing a word in English. At the time, American Sign Language (ASL) was thought to be no more than a form of pidgin English (混杂英语). But Stokoe believed the “hand talk” his students used looked richer. He wondered: Might deaf people actually: have a genuine language? And could that language be unlike any other on Earth? It was 1955, when even deaf people dismissed their signing as “substandard”. Stokoe’s idea was academic heresy (异端邪说).
It is 37 years later. Stokoe—now devoting his time to writing and editing books and journals and to producing video materials on ASL and the deaf culture—is having lunch at a cafe near the Gallaudet campus and explaining how he started a revolution. For decades educators fought his idea that signed languages are natural languages like English, French and Japanese. They assumed language must be based on speech, the modulation (调节) of sound. But sign language is based on the movement of hands, the modulation of space. “What I said,” Stokoe explains, “is that language is not mouth stuff—it’s brain stuff.”
21. The study of sign language is thought to be _____C___.
A) a new way to look at the learning of language
B) a challenge to traditional, views on the nature of language
C) an approach: to simplifying the grammatical structure of a language
D) an attempt to clarify misunderstanding about the origin of language(C)
22. The, present growing interest in sign language was stimulated by ___C_____.
A) a famous scholar in the study of the human brain
B) a leading specialist in the study of liberal arts
C) an English teacher in a university for the deaf
D) some senior experts in American Sign Language(C)
23. According to Stokoe, sign language is _____B___.
A) a Substandard language
B) a genuine language
C) an artificial language
D) an international language(B)
24. Most educators objected to Stokoe’s idea because they thought _____D___.
A) sign language was not extensively used even by deaf people
B) sign language was too artificial to be widely accepted
C) a language should be easy to use and understand
D) a language could only exist in the form of speech sounds(D)
25. Stokoe’s argument is based on his belief that ____D____.
A) sign language is as efficient as any other language
B) sign language is derived from natural language
C) language is a system of meaningful codes
D) language is a product of the brain(D)
2)It was the worst tragedy in maritime history, six times more deadly than the Titanic. When the German cruise ship Wilhelm Gustloff was hit by torpedoes fired from a Russian submarine in the final winter of World War II, more than 10,000 people-mostly women, children and old people fleeing the final Red Army push into NaziGermany-were packed aboard. An ice storm had turned the decks into frozen sheets that sent hundreds of families sliding into the sea as the ship tilted and began to go down. Others desperately tried to put lifeboats down. Some who succeeded fought off those in the water who had the strength to try to claw their way aboard. Most people froze immediately. I’ll never forget the screams,” says Christa Ntitzmann, 87, one of the 1,200 survivors. She recalls watching the ship, brightly lit, slipping into its dark grave-and into seeming nothingness, rarely mentioned for more than half a century.
NowGermany’s Nobel Prize-winning author Gtinter Grass has revived the memory of the 9,000 dead, including more than 4,000 children-with his latest novel Crab Walk, published last month. The book, which will be out in English next year, doesn’t dwell on the sinking; its heroine is a pregnant young woman who survives the catastrophe only to say later: “Nobody wanted to hear about it, not here in the West (ofGermany) and not at all in the East.” The reason was obvious. As Grass put it in a recent interview with the weekly Die Woche: “Because the crimes we Germans are responsible for were and are so dominant, we didn’t have the energy left to tell of our own sufferings.”
The long silence about the sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff was probably unavoidable-and necessary. By unreservedly owning up to their country’s monstrous crimes in the Second World War, Germans have managed to win acceptance abroad, marginalize the neo-Nazis at home and make peace with their neighbors. Today’s unifiedGermanyis more prosperous and stable than at any time in its long, troubled history. For that, a half century of willful forgetting about painful memories like the German Titanic was perhaps a reasonable price to pay. But even the most politically correct Germans believe that they’ ye now earned the right to discuss the full historical record. Not to equate German suffering with that of its victims, but simply to acknowledge a terrible tragedy.
31. Why does the author say the sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff was the worst tragedy in maritime history? (B)
A) It was attacked by Russian torpedoes.
B) It caused the largest number of casualties.
C) Most of its passengers were frozen to death.
D) Its victims were mostly women and children.
32. Hundreds of families dropped into the sea when ___(A)_____.
A) the badly damaged ship leaned toward one side
B) a strong ice storm tilted the ship
C) the cruise ship sank all of a sudden
D) the frightened passengers fought desperately for lifeboats
33. The Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy was little talked about for more than half a century because Germans _____(D)___.
A) were eager to win international acceptance
B) had been pressured to keep silent about it
C) were afraid of offending their neighbors
D) felt guilty for their crimes in World War II
34. How does Gunter Grass revive the memory of the Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy? (D)
A) By describing the ship’s sinking in great detail.
B) By giving an interview to the weekly Die Woche.
C) By presenting the horrible scene of the torpedo attack.
D) By depicting the survival of a young pregnant woman.
35. It can be learned from the passage that Germans no longer think that ____(C)____.
A) the Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy is a reasonable price to pay for the nation’s past misdeeds
B) Germany is responsible for the horrible crimes it committed in World War II
C) they will be misunderstood if they talk about the Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy
D) it-is wrong to equate their sufferings with those of other countries
3)There are people in Italy who can’t stand soccer. Not all Canadians love hockey. A similar situation exists inAmerica, where there are those individuals you may be one of them who yawn or even frown when somebody mentions baseball. 『Baseball to them means boring hours watching grown men in funny tight outfits standing around in a field staring away while very little of anything happens.』① They tell you it’s a game better suited to the 19th century, slow, quiet, gentlemanly. These are the same people you may be one of them who love football because there’s the sport that glorifies “the hit”.
By contrast, baseball seems abstract, cool, silent, still.
On TV the game is fractured into a dozen perspectives, replays, close?ups. The geometry of the game, however, is essential to understanding it. You will contemplate the game from one point as a painter does his subject; you may, of course, project yourself into the game. It is in this projection that the game affords so much space and time for involvement. The TV won’t do it for you.
Take, for example, the third baseman. You sit behind the third base dugout and you watch him watching home plate. His legs are apart, knees flexed. His arms hang loose. He does a lot of this. The skeptic still cannot think of any other sports so still, so passive. 『But watch what happens every time the pitcher throws: the third baseman goes up on his toes, flexes his arms or bring the glove to a point in front of him, takes a step right or left, backward or forward, perhaps he glances across the field to check his first baseman’s position.』② Suppose the pitch is a ball. “Nothing happened,” you say. “I could have had my eyes closed.”
The skeptic and the innocent must play the game. And this involvement in the stands is no more intellectual than listening to music is. Watch the third baseman. Smooth the dirt in front of you with one foot; smooth the pocket in your glove; watch the eyes of the batter, the speed of the bat, the sound of horsehide on wood. If football is a symphony of movement and theatre, baseball is chamber music, a spacious interlocking of notes, chores and responses.
1. The passage is mainly concerned with .
A. the different tastes of people for sports
B. the different characteristics of sports
C. the attraction of football
D. the attraction of baseball
2. Those who don’t like baseball may complain that .
A. it is only to the taste of the old
B. it involves fewer players than football
C. it is not exciting enough
D. it is pretentious and looks funny
3. The author admits that .
A. baseball is too peaceful for the young
B. baseball may seem boring when watched on TV
C. football is more attracting than baseball
D. baseball is more interesting than football
4. By stating “I could have had my eyes closed. ” the author means (4th paragraph last sentence):
A. The third baseman would rather sleep than play the game.
B. Even if the third baseman closed his eyes a moment ago, it could make no different to the result.
C. The third baseman is so good at baseball that he could finish the game with eyes closed all the time and do his work well.
D. The consequent was too bad he could not bear to see it.
5. We can safely conclude that the author .
A. likes footballB. hates football
C. hates baseballD. likes baseball
1. dugout n. 棒球场边供球员休息的地方
2. pitcher n. 投手
3. symphony n. 交响乐
4. chamber n. 室内
5. contemplate vt.沉思，注视
①【解析】此句的主干是“Baseball…means…watching…”，其中“in funny tight outfits”用来修饰“grown men”,“standing…”和“staring”用来做“grown men”的定语。
②【解析】这是一个复合句，“goes up…”，“flexes…”“takes…”，“glances…”做“the third baseman”的并列谓语。
1. D主旨题。文章第一段简述了人们对垒球所持的偏见——认为它毫无活力、从容和缓，不像橄榄球那样高潮迭起、令人激动。文章的第二、三、四、五段探讨了垒球的根本特征及欣赏角度，文章的最后一句话用一个比喻概括了垒球的魅力：“如果橄榄球是一曲交响乐的话，那么，垒球中所表现出来的运动恰似一曲优美的室内乐。”可见，本文主要探讨的是垒球的特点及其欣赏。 A不对，第一段也确实提到了不同观众对不同运动形式的偏好，但这只是用以引出对垒球的特征及欣赏的讨论。
2. C细节题。文章第一段指出：许多人不喜欢垒球，一提起垒球这些人就打哈欠甚至皱眉头。对他们来说，看垒球意味着眼巴巴地观望着身着运动装(outfit)的人呆立在球场上，东瞧瞧西望望，很少有什么(激动人心的)事发生——没意思透了。他们认为这样的运动更适合上个世纪的人的口味，不像橄榄球那样充满活力。 A意为：“它只适合老年人的口味。”注意：原文说的是适合上个世纪的人的口味，二者意味不一样。 D意为：“它矫揉造作、滑稽可笑。”这与说它gentlemanly(具有绅士风度，矜持，即：没有冲撞或拼抢)不一样。
3. B推断题。第三段指出，在电视上，垒球运动被切换成不同角度的画面，而且不断地使用重放、特写等电视制作技术，这破坏了该运动的整体运动感，使观众无法将自己投入(project)到运动中去，以体会到这种寓动于静的运动之美。电视做不到这一点(The TV won’t do it for you)，因此，电视上的垒球比赛看上去(seems)孤孤单单、冷冷清清、沉沉静静、慢慢腾腾。C、D不对，作者仅指出了不同运动有不同运动的特征，并未说哪种运动优于哪种。参阅文章最后一句。
4）Among the more colorful characters of Leadville’s golden age were H.A.W.Tabor and his second wife,Elizabeth McCourt,better known as “Baby Doe”.Their history is fast becoming one of the legends of the Old West.Horace Austin Warner Tabor was a school teacher in Vermont.With his first wife and two children he left Vermont by covered wagon in 1855 to homestead in Kansas.Perhaps he did not find farming to his liking,or perhaps he was lured by rumors of fortunes to be made in Colorado mines.At any rate,a few years later he moved west to the small Colorado mining camp known as California Gulch,which he later renamed Leadville when he became its leading citizen. “Great deposits of lead are sure to be found here.”he said.
As it turned out,it was silver,not lead,that was to make Leadville’s fortune and wealth. Tabor knew little about mining himself,so he opened a general store,which sold everything from boots to salt,flour,and tobacco.『It was his custom to “grubstake” prospective miners,in other words,to supply them with food and supplies,or “grub”, while they looked for ore,in return for which he would get a share in the mine if one was discovered.』①He did this for a number of years,but no one that he aided ever found anything of value.
Finally one day in the year 1878,so the story goes,two miners came in and asked for “grub”. Tabor had decided to quit supplying it because he had lost too much money that way.These were persistent, however,and Tabor was too busy to argue with them. “Oh help yourself.One more time won’t make any difference,” He said and went on selling shoes and hats to other customers.the two miners took $17 worth of supplies,in return for which they gave Tabor a one-third interest in their findings.They picked a barren place on the mountainside and began to dig.After nine days they struck a rich vein of silver.Tabor bought the shares of the other two men,and so the mine belonged to him alone.This mine,known as the “Pittsburgh Mine,” made ?1 300 000 for Tabor in return for his $17 investment.
Later Tabor bought the Matchless Mine on another barren hillside just outside the town for $117 000.This turned out to be even more fabulous than the Pittsburgh,yielding $35 000 worth of silver per day at one time.Leadville grew.Tabor became its first mayor,and later became lieutenant governor of the state.
1.Leadville got its name for the following reasons EXCEPT.
A.because Tabor became its leading citizen
B.because great deposits of lead is expected to be found there
C.because it could bring good fortune to Tabor
D.because it was renamed
2.The word “grubstake” in paragraph 2 means.
A.to supply miners with food and supplies
B.to open a general store
C.to do one’s contribution to the development of the mine
D.to supply miners with food and supplies and in return get a share in the mine,if one was discovered
3.Tabor made his first fortune.
A.by supplying two prospective miners and getting in return a one-third interest in the findings
B.because he was persuaded by the two miners to quit supplying
C.by buying the shares of the other
D.as a land speculator
4. The underlying reason for Tabor’s life career is.
A. purely accidental
B. based on the analysis of miner’s being very poor and their possibility of discovering profitable mining site
C. through the help from his second wife
D. he planned well and accomplished targets step by step
5.If this passage is the first part of an article,who might be introduced in the following part?
B.Tabor’s second wife,Elizabeth McCourt.
C.Other colorful characters.
D.Tabor’s other careers.
1.barren adj. 贫瘠的
2.fabulous adj. 神话般的，难以置信的
5. B推断题。如果本文是一篇文章的第一部分，那么在文章的第二部分将介绍谁呢?key可以从文章第一句分析出来，在Leadville的黄金年代，其多彩的特点当中，Tabor及其第二任妻子Elizabeth McCourt是值得大书特书的，接着，文章都在讲述有关H.A.W.Tabor发家致富的历史，如先买下匹兹堡矿，后又买下Matchless矿，最后成为市长，代理州长，等等，所以涉及到的全是男主人公，因此下边再讲的话，应成为女主人公即Elizabeth McCourt的天地了，她是Tabor的第二任妻子。这是顺理成章的事
5)Open up most fashion magazines and you will see incredibly thin models with impossible hair and wearing unreasonably expensive, impracticably styled clothes. But shouldn't clothes be comfortably durable and make a principle of being simple for the individual who wears them? Why are we constantly told that we need to buy new clothes and add fresh pieces to our collection?
Fashions change year after year so lots of people can make piles of money. If folks are convinced that they need a different look each season, that this year's sweater's length and shoes style are important, they can be persuaded to buy. The fashion industry would have you ignore your shortcomings and just make you feel beautiful and happy. In fact it is not only a phenomenon we can find in people's dressing.
Fashion controls our lives. Fashion controls what we wear, what we eat, what we drink, the way we cut our hair, the makeup We buy and use, the color of the cars we drive. Fashion even controls our ideas.
You don't believe me? How many. Of your friends are vegetarians? Why are they vegetarians? Because it is fashionable!
Where does fashion come from? Often the reasons are quite logical. Scientists and historians study the fashions of the past and discover the secrets of each fashion.
When girls see an attractive guy, their blood pressure rises and their lips become redder. That's why guys think that girls wearing lipstick are beautiful.
Why do guys shave their heads? In the past soldiers shaved their heads to kill the insects that lived in their hair. Now guys shave their heads so that they look strong and masculine, like soldiers.
People spend a lot of time and money on fashion. But are they wasting their money? Changes in fashion help to develop new technologies. Changes in style create work for people all over the world. Many people work in the fashion industry, particularly in the fashion capitals ofLondon,New York,ParisandMilan.
And finally, fashion makes you feel good, doesn't it? When you are dressed in the latest style, dancing to the most fashionable music, after watching the latest hit film, you feel great, don't you?
1. What's the author's viewpoint about the models and their hairstyles and clothes?
A. Unbiased. B. Indifferent. C. Critical. D. Appreciative.
2. It is indicated by the author that clothes should be
A. comfortable and durable. B. new and fresh.C. expensive and fashionable.
D. simple and unique
3. The fashion industry makes profits by
A. selling the products at high prices. B. creating a need in you.
C. helping you get rid of your shortcomings. D. making you look more beautiful.
4. The author thinks what has been found about fashions by the scientists and the. historians is
A. incredible. B. amazing. C. reasonable. D. creative.
5. The passage mentions the advantages of fashion EXCEPT that
A. it can help promote technological development.
B. it enables people to remain up-to-date.
C. it can create more job opportunities for people.
D. it can make people achieve a great feeling.