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谈旅游资料汉英翻译

谈旅游资料汉英翻译

更新时间:2011-07-14 13:30:18    字体:   |  | 
摘 要:中英文的差异是不言而喻的。中文旅游资料在写作之初没有、也不必考虑以后要翻译成英语的问题。鉴于旅游资料的翻译不同于文学作品,文献资料等的翻译,动笔之前首先要了解英文相关资料的写作模式;其次要明确翻译的目的,即在有限的篇幅内向游客介绍具体的、实用的信息;最后还要明确译文的服务对象———以度假休闲为目的的、对中国知之甚少或一无所知的普通游客。只有这样,才能将原文的主要内容以读者喜闻乐见的形式呈现于读者面前。

关键词:旅游资料;翻译方法

我国悠久的历史、灿烂的文化正以其独特的魅力吸引着越来越多的外国人到中国来旅游。让外国人在有限的时间内尽可能多地了解中国文化,除了导游员的介绍,我们也不能忽视相关旅游资料的作用。旅游资料的种类很多,有图书、宣传画册、导游图、电视电影记录片和明信片等,它所涉及的内容五花八门,包罗万象。目前的现实是英文版的旅游资料大都译自汉语,而翻译过程中存在着一些诸如原则、方法等问题。本文重点讨论的是:以国外普通旅游者为对象,以介绍中国旅游资源(旅游景点、旅游城市及旅游活动) 为主的旅行指南及对外宣传材料的汉译英问题。
  Abstract : It is selfevident that Chinese and English are completelydifferent. When composing tourismrelated materials , the authors ofthe Chinese version do not , and needn’t consider their beingtranslated into English. As the translation of tourismrelatedmaterials differs from the translation of literary works or documents.
  The translators should first be aware of style of such materials whentranslating these materials ; secondly , they should know theirpurpose —to introduce the specific and useful information to commontourists in a limited space ; finally , they should know their readers—the tourists who come to China on holiday , and who know little or alittle about China. Only in this way will the English version be wellreceived.
  Key words :tourismrelated material ;translation
  一、景点名称的翻译
  景点名称的翻译看似简单,但要译好译准,还需要译者对其有透彻的了解。一般的做法无非是音译、音译加意译和意译。景点名称是采取音译还是意译,要视情况而定,不可一概而论。例如,苏州著名的景点寒山寺,就不能译成Cold Hill Temple ,因其是取自一古代诗僧寒山之名, 故只能将其译成Hanshan Temple ; 又如: 拙政园( Garden of HumbleAdministrator) 是明嘉靖年间御史王献臣辞职回乡后在元大宏寺遗址所建造的别墅,并借用晋代潘岳《闲居赋》中“拙者之为政也”一句为园名。如果采用音译的方法,不仅这其中的历史人物、典故将不为读者所知,其园名及游园的雅趣也无从体会了。
  再比如,同样是庙宇的潭柘寺、塔尔寺、凤凰寺、栊翠庵和包公寺,在翻译时译者不仅要观其名,还要知其实,才能选择恰当的词汇。潭柘寺是佛教寺庙,
  译成The Temple of Pool and Oak ;栊翠庵是尼姑修行之地,译成Green Lattice Nunnery ;塔尔寺是藏传佛教———即喇嘛教的寺院,译成Taer Lamasery ;凤凰寺是一清真教寺院,故译成Fenghuang Mosque ;而包公寺是为纪念包拯所建的寺庙,所以译成The MemorialTemple of Bao Zheng。如果一概音译加temple 的话,
  读者就无法对中国的宗教有更多的了解,使他们的中国之旅的收获大打折扣。还有“大观园”里的“稻香村”,名为“村”,实际不过一清朴农舍,所以要译成:Paddy Sweet Cottage.
二、旅游资料的翻译
  (一) 明确译文的体裁,了解英文同类材料的写作模式旅行指南、城市及旅游活动的对外宣传材料,其篇幅是有限的。译文的读者是那些对中国一无所知或知之甚少的英语国家的客人。要让他们在有限的篇幅内获得尽可能多的信息,译者应该了解英语国家这类材料的写作模式。这里我们不妨看一看美国密歇根州的MACKINAC 岛和ALPENA 市的旅游资料。
  MACKINAC岛的旅游指南包括不同颜色标识的旅行路线图和沿线的景点介绍。如从设在码头上的Visitor ’s Center 到重要的景点之一FORTMAXKINAC:
  例.
  FORTMACKINAC , THE VIEW FROM THE TOPWalking , P to hoursVisitor’s Center to Fort MACKINAC:

  In , during the American Revolution ,
  LieutenantGovernor Patrick Sinclair commanded Britishfur trading activities and the military garrison at the Straitsof MACKINAC. Afraid that American rebels would attackhis mainland fort at presentday MACKINAC City ,
  Sinclair saw MACKINAC Island as readily defensible.
  Standing near the presentday Visitor’s Center , henotedgeographical characteristics which shaped the pattern ofisland use for two centuries.
  Unlike the shore of Fort Michilimackinac , the Islandhad a deepwater harbor for British war

    

ships and , muchlater , for excursion and ferry boats. The flat shoreline wasideal for French and English homes and fur traders’warehouses. Today shops and hotels cluster around thecommercial docks. Most of all Sinclair liked the cliffoverlooking the harbor , which gave a commanding view ofthe Straits. Here he built Fort MACKINAC.
  Walking up Fort Street to the foot of the Fort rampyou pass the triangular stone monument erected in bythe Daughters of the American Revolution. It proclaimsthat“MACKINAC is the most place in Michigan. ”On theleft is Trinity Episcopal Church and on the right theMissionary Bark Chapel.
  ?
  例.
  ALPENA 是位于密歇根州西北部,濒临休伦湖的一个小城市。该市幽静、清洁,一年四季皆有美景。它是这样宣传自己的:
  Long pleasant days of summer draw us out of doorswhere we linger until the last bit of twilight fades. Gentleblue water laps the shore and warm sunshine nudgesswimmers in , while others stroll the sands in search oftreasure or simply lie on the beach and drink in the sun.
  Canoeists paddle the river , past lush green woods , cattailsand wildlife.
  ??
  Autumn blazes in with a spectacular farewell tosummer in magnificent shades of red , orange and yellow.
  The bounty of season calls for celebration. Fromscarecrows and pumpkins to celebrations of pioneer andmaritime history , people find plenty of reasons for revelry.
  The countryside beckons with old fashioned hospitality andthe fruits of a bountiful harvest .
  ?
  例.
  密歇根州地处五大湖区,近几年来每年都要举办灯塔节。下面是一份灯塔节的广告宣传材料:
  th Annual Great Lakeslighthouse FestivalThursday , Friday , Saturday &Sundaynd weekend in October , Alpena MichiganThursdayTour on your own :
Middle Island Boat toursThunder Bay Island Boat tourVisit one of you favorite Great Lakes LighthousesPlan on Attending :
  Children’s ConcertKickoff EventMemorial to Lost SailorsFridayA Day to tour on your own :

  You may want to visit some of the following :
  Jesse Besser MuseumMiddle Island Museum on WheelsSturgeon Point Lighthouse??
  从以上这 份材料来看,英文这类旅游资料的写作特点是:对景点的介绍侧重指导性和实用性;对旅游城市的介绍重点在突出特色;而对旅游活动的介绍重点是让活动时间、地点、安排一目了然。从语言风格上看,通篇没有华丽的溢美之辞,用词直白、简练,叙事具体、直截了当。(二) 译者不是工匠而是设计师
  译者不是作者,这是无法选择的事实。但译者不应是简单地将一种语言符号转换成另一种语言符号的工匠,他(她) 要为读者着想,即译文能否为读者所接受,是否为读者所喜闻乐见? 因此,译者应该是一名设计师。
  汉语中描写风景的词汇丰富,辞藻华丽,所以中文这类材料中主观描写、“虚”夸之词较多。我国悠久的历史、灿烂的文化集中体现在旅游宣传材料中,
  如历史人物、典故、神话、诗赋、成语、地名、历史年代等等。如何翻译这些材料,恰如其分地表达、传递给外国旅游者,就不得不考虑翻译的原则与方法。
  所谓翻译,翻译家杨绛的理解为: ??把原作换一种文字,照模照样地表达。原文说什么,译文就说什么;原文怎么说,译文也怎么说。这是翻译家一致承认的。至于如何贯彻这个指导思想,却没有现成的规律;具体问题只能个别解决。
  具体到旅游资料的翻译,如果一味强调“忠实”,
  译出的文字会是什么样呢? 请看:南方某市举办的龙舟会的宣传材料:“中华大地,江河纵横; 华夏文化,源远流长??轻快的龙舟如银河流星,瑰丽的彩船似海市蜃楼,两岸那金碧辉煌的彩楼连成一片水晶宫,是仙境? 是梦境? 仰视彩鸽割飞,低眸漂灯留霓,焰火怒放,火树银花,灯舞回旋,千姿百态,气垫船腾起一江春潮,射击手点破满天彩球??”
  译文:The divine land of China has its rivers flowingacross ; the brilliant culture of China has its roots tracingback long ?
  The light dragonboats appear on the river as thoughthe stars twinkle in the Milky Way. The richly decoratedpleasure boats look like a scene

      

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