清华大学博士考试英语试题及答案Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension (20%)(略）Part Ⅱ Vocabulary (10%) Directions: There are 20 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one that completes the sentence and then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWET SHEET with a single line through the center.
21. The__________of the spring water attracts a lot of visitors from other parts of the country.
A. clashB. clarifyC. clarityD. clatter
22. Business in this area has been__________because prices are too high.
A. prosperous B. secretive C. slackD. shrill
23. He told a story about his sister who was in a sad__________when she was ill and had no money.
A. plight B. polarizationC. plague D. pigment
24. He added a__________to his letter by saying that he would arrive before 8 pm.
A. presidency B. prestige C. postscript D. preliminary
25. Some linguists believe that the__________age for children learning a foreign language is 5 to 8.
A. optimistic B. optional C. optimal D. oppressed
26. It all started in 1950, when people began to build their houses on the__________of their cities.
A. paradisesB. omissions C. orchards D. outskirts
27. The meeting was__________over by the mayor of the city.
A. presumed B. proposed C. presentedD. presided
28. The crowd__________into the hall and some had to stand outside.
A. outgrew B. overthrew C. overpassedD. overflew
29. It was clear that the storm__________his arrival by two hours.
A. retarded B. retired C. refrained D. retreated
30. This problem should be discussed first, for it takes__________over all the other issues.
A. precedenceB. prosperityC. presumption D. probability
31. Her sadness was obvious, but she believed that her feeling of depression was__________.
A. torrentB. transient C. tensile D. textured
32. Nobody knew how he came up with this__________idea about the trip.
A. wearyB. twilight C. unanimousD. weird
33. The flower under the sun would__________quickly without any protection.
A. wink B. withhold C. wither D. widower
34. The__________of gifted children into accelerated classes will start next week according to their academic performance.
A. segregation B. specification C. spectrumD. subscription
35. He__________himself bitterly for his miserable behavior that evening.
A. repealed B. resentedC. relayed D. reproached
36. Any earthquake that takes place in any area is certainly regarded as a kind of a __________event.
A. cholesterol B. charcoalC. catastrophic D. chronic
37. He cut the string and held up the two__________to tie the box.
A. segments B. sediments C. seizures D. secretes
38. All the music instruments in the orchestra will be__________before it starts.
A. civilizedB. chattered C. chambered D. chorded
39. When the air in a certain space is squeezed to occupy a smaller space, the air is said to be__________.
A. commenced B. compressedC. compromised D. compensated
40. She made two copies of this poem and posted them__________to different publishers.
A. sensationally B. simultaneously C. strenuously D. simplyPart
Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40%) Directions:
There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions of unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. You should decide on the best choice and then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.Questions 41 to 45 are based on the following passage:
Each year, millions of people in Bangladesh drink ground water that has been polluted by naturally high levels of arsenic poison. Finding safe drinking water in that country can be a problem. However, International Development Enterprises has a low-cost answer. This non-governmental organization has developed technology to harvest rainwater.People around the world have been harvesting rainwater for centuries. It is a safe, dependable source of drinking water. Unlike ground water, rainwater contains no minerals or salts and is free of chemical treatments. Best of all, it is free.The rainwater harvesting system created by International Development Enterprises uses pipes to collect water from the tops of buildings. The pipes stretch from the tops of buildings to a two-meter tall storage tank made of metal. At the top of the tank is a so-called “first-flush”device made of wire screen. This barrier prevents dirt and leaves in the water from falling inside the tank.A fitted cover sits over the “first-flush” device. It protects the water inside the tank from evaporating. The cover also prevents mosquito insects from laying eggs in the water.Inside the tank is a low coat plastic bag that collects the water. The bag sits inside another plastic bag similar to those used to hold grains. The two bags are supported inside the metal tank. All total, the water storage system can hold up to three-thousand-five-hundred liters of water. International Development Enterprises says the inner bags may need to be replaced every two to three years. However, if the bags are not damaged by sunlight, they could last even longer.International Development Enterprises says the water harvesting system should be built on a raised structure to prevent insects from eating into it at the bottom. The total cost to build this rainwater harvesting system is about forty dollars. However, International Development Enterprises expects the price to drop over time. The group says one tank can provide a family of five with enough rainwater to survive a five-month dry season.
41. People in Bangladesh can use__________as a safe source of drinking water.
A. ground waterB. rainwaterC. drinking waterD. fresh water
42. Which of the following contributes to the low-cost of using rainwater?
A. Rainwater is free of chemical treatments.
B. People have been harvesting rainwater for centuries.
C. The water harvesting system is built on a platform.
D. Rainwater can be collected using pipes.
43. Which of the following actually prevents dirt and leaves from falling inside the tank?
A. a barrierB. a wire screenC. a first-flushD. a storage tank
44. The bags used to hold water are likely to be damaged by__________.
A. mosquito insectsB. a fitted coverC. a first-flush deviceD. sunlight
45. What should be done to prevent insects from eating into the water harvesting system at the bottom?
A. The two bags holding the water should be put inside the metal tank.
B. The inner bags need to be replaced every two years.
C. The water harvesting system should be built on a platform.
D. A cover should be used to prevent insects from eating it.
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage:
Where one stage of child development has been left out, or not sufficiently experienced, the child may have to go back and capture the experience of it. A good home makes this possible, for example by providing the opportunity for the child to play with a clockwork car or toy railway train up to any age if he still needs to do so. This principle, in fact, underlies all psychological treatment of children in difficulties with their development, and is the basis of work in child clinics.The beginnings of discipline are in the nursery. Even the youngest baby is taught by gradual stages to wait for food, to sleep and wake at regular intervals and so on. If the child feels the world around him is a warm and friendly one, he slowly accepts its rhythm and accustoms himself to conforming to its demands. Learning to wait for things, particularly for food, is a very important element in upbringing, and is achieved successfully only if too great demands are not made before the child can understand them.Every parent watches eagerly the child's acquisition of each new skill―the first spoken words, the first independent steps, or the beginning of reading and writing. It is often tempting to hurry the child beyond his natural learning rate, but this can set up dangerous feeling of failure and states of anxiety in the child. This might happen at any stage. A baby might be forced to use a toilet too early, a young child might be encouraged to learn to read before he knows the meaning of the words he reads. On the other hand, though, if a child is left alone too much, or without any learning opportunities, he loses his natural zest for life and his desire to find out new things for himself.Learning together is a fruit source of relationship between children and parents. By playing together, parents learn more about their children and children learn more from their parents. Toys and games which both parents and children can share are an important means of achieving this co-operation. Building-block toys, jigsaw puzzles and crossword are good examples.Parents vary greatly in their degree of strictness or indulgence towards their children. Some may be especially strict in money matters, others are severe over times of coming home at night, punctuality for meals or personal cleanliness. In general, the controls imposed represent the needs of the parents and the values of the community as much as the child's own happiness and well-being.
46. The principle underlying all treatment of developmental difficulties in children__________.
A. is to send them to clinics B. offers recapture of earlier experiences
C. is in the provision of clockwork toys and trains D. is to capture them before they are sufficiently experienced
47. The child in the nursery__________.
A. quickly learns to wait for food B. doesn't initially sleep and wake at regular intervals
C. always accepts the rhythm of the world around them D. always feels the world around him is warm and friendly
48. The encouragement of children to achieve new skills__________.
A. can never be taken too far B. should be left to school teachers
C. will always assist their development D. should be balanced between two extremes
49. Jigsaw puzzles are__________.
A. too difficult for children B. a kind of building-block toy
C. not very entertaining for adults D. suitable exercises for parent-child cooperation
50. Parental controls and discipline__________.
A. serve a dual purpose B. should be avoided as much as possible
C. reflect the values of the community D. are designed to promote the child's
happinessQuestions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage:
More than half of all Jews married in U. S. since 1990 have wed people who aren't Jewish. Nearly 480, 000 American children under the age of ten have one Jewish and one non-Jewish parent. And, if a survey compiled by researchers at the University of California at Los Angeles is any indication, it's almost certain that most of these children will not identify themselves as “Jewish” when they get older.That survey asked college freshmen, who are usually around age 18, about their own and their parents' religious identities. Ninety-three percent of those with two Jewish parents said they thought of themselves as Jewish. But when the father wasn't Jewish, the number dropped to 38 percent, and when the mother wasn't Jew, just 15 percent of the students said they were Jewish, too.“I think what was surprising was just how low the Jewish identification was in these mixed marriage families.” Linda Sax is a professor of education at UCLA. She directed the survey which was conducted over the course of more than a decade and wasn't actually about religious identity specifically. But Professor Sax says the answers to questions about religion were particularly striking, and deserve a more detailed study. She says it's obvious that interfaith marriage works against the development of Jewish identity among children, but says it's not clear at this point why that's the case. “This new study is necessary to get more in-depth about their feelings about their religion. That's something that the study that I completed was not able to do. We didn't have information on how they feel about their religion, whether they have any concern about their issues of identification, how comfortable they feel about their lifelong goals. I think the new study's going to cover some of that,” she says.Jay Rubin is executive director of Hilel, a national organization that works with Jewish college students. Mr. Rubin says Judaism is more than a religion, it's an experience. And with that in mind, Hillel has commissioned a study of Jewish attitudes towards Judaism. Researchers will concentrate primarily on young adults, and those with two Jewish parents, and those with just one, those who see themselves as Jewish and those who do not. Jay Rubin says Hillel will then use this study to formulate a strategy for making Judaism more relevant to the next generation of American Jews.
51. The best title of this passage is__________.
A. Jewish and Non-Jewish in American B. Jewish Identity in America
C. Judaism-a Religion? D. College Jewish Students
52. Among the freshmen at UCLA__________thought themselves as Jewish.
A. most B. 93% of those whose parents were both Jewish
C. 62% of those only whose father were Jewish D. 15% of those only whose mother were Jewish
53. The phrase “interfaith marriage” in the Paragraph 3 refers to the__________.
A. marriage of people based on mutual belief B. marriage of people for the common faith
C. marriage of people of different religious faiths D. marriage of people who have faith in each other
54. Which of the following statements is NOT true about professor Sax's research?
A. The research indicates that most students with only one Jewish parent will not think themselves as Jewish.
B. The survey was carried out among Jewish Freshmen.
C. The research survey didn't find out what and how these Jewish students think about their religion.
D. The research presents a new perspective for the future study.
55. Which of the following is true according to the last paragraph?
A. Mr. Rubin is the founder of Hillel.
B. Mr. Rubin thinks that Judaism is not a religion and it's an experience.
C. Hillel is an organization concerned with Jewish college students in the world.
D. Hillel has asked certain people to carry out a study about Jewish attitudes towards Judaism.
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage:
Governments that want their people to prosper in the burgeoning world economy should guarantee two basic rights: the right to private property and the right to enforceable contracts, says Mancur Olson in his book Power and Prosperity. Olson was an economics professor at the University of Maryland until his death in 1998.Some have argued that such rights are merely luxuries that wealthy societies bestow, but Olson turns that argument around and asserts that such rights are essential to creating wealth. “In comes are low in most of the countries of the world, in short, because the people in those countries do not have secure in dividual rights,” he says.Certain simple economic activities, such as food gathering and making handicrafts, rely mostly on individual labor; property is not necessary. But more advanced activities, such as the mass production of goods, require machines and factories and offices. This production is often called capital-intensive, but it is really property-intensive, Olson observes.“No one would normally engage in capital-intensive production if he or she did not have rights that kept the valuable capital from being taken by bandits, whether roving or stationary,”he argues. “There is no private property without government―individuals may have possessions, the way a dog possesses a bone, but there is private property only if the society protects and defends a private right to that possession against other private parties and against the government as well.”Would-be entrepreneurs, no matter how small, also need a government and court system that will make sure people honor their contracts. In fact, the banking systems relied on by developed nations are based on just such an enforceable contract system. “We would not deposit our money in banks...if we could not rely on the bank having to honor its contract with us, and the bank would not be able to make the profits it needs to stay in business if it could not enforce its loan contracts with borrowers,” Olson writes.Other economists have argued that the poor economies of Third World and communist countries are the result of governments setting both prices and the quantities of goods produced rather than letting a free market determine them. Olson agrees there is some merit to this point of view, but he argues that government intervention is not enough to explain the poverty of these countries. Rather, the real problem is lack of individual rights that give people incentive to generate wealth. “If a society has clear and secure individual rights, there are strong incentives (刺激，动力）to produce, invest, and engage in mutually advantageous trade, and therefore at least some economic advance,” Olson concludes.
56. Which of the following is true about Olson?
A. He was a fiction writer.
B. He edited the book Power and Prosperity.
C. He taught economics at the University of Maryland.
D. He was against the ownership of private property.
57. Which of the following represents Olson's point or view?
A. Protecting individual property rights encourages wealth building.
B. Only in wealthy societies do people have secure individual rights.
C. Secure individual rights are brought about by the wealth of the society.
D. In some countries, people don't have secure individual rights because they're poor.
58. What does Olson think about mass production?
A. It's capital intensive. B. It's property intensive.
C. It relies on individual labor. D. It relies on individual skills.
59. What is the basis for the banking system?
A. Contract system that can be enforced.
B. People's willingness to deposit money in banks.
C. The possibility that the bank can make profits from its borrowers.
D. The fact that some people have surplus money while some need loans.
60. According to Olson, what is the reason for the poor economies of Third World countries?
A. government intervention B. lack of secure individual rights
C. being short of capital D. lack of a free market
Part Ⅳ Cloze (10%) Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage.
For each blank there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage.
Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.For the people who have never traveled across the Atlantic the voyage is a fantasy. But for the people who cross it frequently one crossing of the Atlantic is very much like another, and they do not make the voyage for the__61__of its interest. Most of us are quite happy when we feel__62__to go to bed and pleased when the journey__63__. On the first night this time I fel